Hindou Oumanou Ibrahim, spokeswoman of the Association des Femmes Peules Autochtones du Tchad (AFPAT) (left) with a participant from Cameroon (right). Photo: Annette Hauschild
Controversial ies are financing, greenhouse gas emissions and reporting obligations
Shortly before the end of the Conference of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on Climate Protection (Convention of the Parties – COP 23) in Bonn, there are only a few satisfactory results for climate protection.
195 nations negotiated a roadmap to implement the 2015 Paris Agreement to combat global climate change. The Paris Agreement’s ultimate goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to below 1990 levels by 2030 in order to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius. To this end, a set of rules (rule book) is to be created. Each country has so far had a relatively free hand in deciding which measures it considers appropriate.
There is currently no consensus on financial aid for environmental damage, for the conversion to alternative energies, for which the industrialized countries had promised assistance, or on the rule book. Developing countries want to ask UN Secretary General Gutierrez to intervene so that developed countries finally sign the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (Doha Amendment) and accept the regulatory and financial commitments that come with it.
The "Bonn"-Zone and the "Bula"-Zone
A village of white tents, stage of the UN conference, covered a large part of the Rheinauenpark on the banks of the Rhine in Bonn, Germany. Here, for two weeks, delegates from 195 nations negotiated measures to combat climate change and its feared consequences. The tents were divided into two zones: In the "Bonn"-zone, the information pavilions of the participating nations, non-governmental organizations and observing organizations and scientific institutions could be found. The "Bula"-zone was reserved for negotiations (Bula means welcome in Fijian) "Welcome").
An almost incalculable number of events accompanied the conference, not only at the Peoples Climate Summit, an alternative summit held before the start of the UN conference. Environmental associations, development aid organizations, campaigns, scientists, lobby groups organized exhibitions, workshops, excursions, lectures on various topics discussed at the UN conference.
An unusual spirit
The conference was chaired by the President of the Republic of Fiji, Frank Bainimarama, because Fiji currently holds the presidency of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). However, since the small island nation does not have the capacity to host a 195-nation conference, it was held at the headquarters of the UN Climate Change Secretariat in Bonn, Germany.
Bainimarama chaired the conference in the spirit of the "Tanaloa", which means in Fijian "Entertainment", "easy". He was not shielded as much as one is used to from high German government officials, who always have six men from the security group of the Federal Criminal Police Office around them at public appearances. One evening he met with his compatriots at the pavilion in front of a replica of a traditional palm frond hat, the choir sang and everyone sang and clapped along.
He opened the conference with a traditional Fijian ceremony. There were many ceremonies in the framework of the climate summit actions, because there were also the Pacific Climate Warriors, but in the protests for the coal phase-out, and representatives of indigenous tribes from North and South America. There were.B. an enchantingly decorated corner, the "Tanaloa"-corner in the Bonn Zone, with walls of moss and magnificent red pineapple blossoms, which delighted many guests, especially the female ones. A place to meet and exchange ideas and opinions, in keeping with the Polynesian tradition of informal exchange of ideas
Roughly formatted illuminated pictures showed scenes of everyday life in Fiji: farmers, fishermen, children swimming or playing, beautiful beaches, but also the huge damage caused by the last devastating tropical storms and floods.
Immediate decreases demanded
Many delegations, especially from the Pacific island states, came to Bonn with great expectations. By the end of the first week, which was reserved for preliminary negotiations at the working level on the procedure and agenda of the conference, there had been some disagreement among the delegations. The Paris Agreement will not take effect until 2020.
As a result, a number of developing countries and island states, which are already being hit by severe storms, floods and droughts, are calling for emergency measures to be implemented before 2020 ("pre 2020") and significantly reduce emissions.
These pre2020 measures were not on the agenda for the Bonn conference, but the developing countries, supported by China and India, wanted to make them an official item on the agenda. This did not exactly meet with the approval of the industrialized countries, whose energy supply is heavily dependent on coal and gas.
Two other important points were "Global Stocktake" and transparency. The Global Stocktake is an inventory of how far countries have actually reduced their emissions. This is to become internationally uniform. Each country must submit an annual report on its efforts to reduce greenhouse gases. In terms of transparency, developing countries are to be put on an equal footing with industrialized countries in terms of quantities and reporting requirements. However, the latter is not in favor of this.
It was not only about CO2, but also about possibilities to reduce emissions from agriculture, transportation, especially marine diesel, methane, nitrous oxide as well as sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen. Working groups on the sidelines of the conference dealt with this ie.
The tug of war for the financing of damages and losses
Delegates from the group of least developed countries (LCDs), Least developed countries) complained again and again that the industrialized countries, which had actually caused the problem, kept rejecting their demands. Now the ies of financing loss and damage have been postponed until 2018, after which the First World countries plan to hold an expert dialogue on loss and damages (loss and damages) caused by extreme weather events.
The Iranian negotiator had criticized this delaying tactic with a mocking laugh.
President Bainimarama proposed an "Insuresilience"-plan: Countries affected by the consequences of climate change, such as tropical storms, floods, droughts, and diseases, would be required to purchase insurance for damage caused by crop failure, loss of land, buildings, infrastructure, and human lives. But this would also mean that those who contribute least to the greenhouse effect would nevertheless have to bear the lion’s share of the burden.